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Diverse Age Groups:

*Youth and Young Adultsyouthb1

  • Children and teenagers represent an important demographic to marketers because they influence their parents’ buying power, and will mature into adult consumers.
  • Today’s children have more decision-making power within the family than previous generations (They often nag or pester parents into buying something they may not otherwise buy).
  • X and Y generations (y=born after 1980, x=born between 1965 and 1980) are labeled the E-generations for the new technology driven pastimes.

* Baby Boomers:HEADSHOPS2/C/06DEC96/MN/DF

  • Age group born between 1946 and 1964, make up market of 76 million people, and 28% of population.
  • They grew up in an age of prosperity (unlike their parents)
  • As a result from growing up in the 60s and 70s, they tend to be “rather active, socially conscious bunch”.

*Seniors:

  • Men and women 65 years or older. Heavy upsurge in the senior population will peak at 50 million in 2010.
  • They vote in great numbers than their juniors and are more intense readers of newspapers and magazines.
  • They are very health-conscious, out of self-interest, and want to know about medical developments. 42-15765479

Race Population in 2005:hispanic-indian1

~White:  198.4 million=67

~Hispanic:42.7million=14.5%

~Black: 36.3 million= 12.2%

~Asian: 12.4 million=4.1%

~Native American: 2.6 million=1%

~More than one race: 4 million=1.2%

5 basic concepts that should be considered when developing a communications campaign for multicultural consumers:

  1. Organize a team with an understanding of the customs and values of the various demographic groups you are trying to reach.
  2. Understand that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds respond better to messages that are culturally relevant.
  3. Remember that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds are extremely loyal and once your products and services become a part of their lives, there is a very good chance you will keep them.
  4. Use the primary language of the audience. A large portion of you target audience prefers to communicate in their primary language, even if they have strong English skills.
  5. Use spokesperson that represents the audience. Spokesperson must be a good communicator and be sensitive to the issues that are important to the audience.

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News Release (also called press release): The first press release was issued by Ivy Lee in 1906 for the Pennsylvania Railroad. Today, it is still the most common used PR tactic. This is a simple document with the primary purpose of getting information to the mass media (newspapers, broadcast stations, and magazines,etc.)

The Wall Street Journal admits that “a good 50%” of the stories in the newspapers come from news releases.  

Why does the media rely on news releases?

  • Today, journalist spend most of their time processing information, not gathering it
  • Staffing, there are not enough people to cover ever single event taking place in the community. PR people are the newspapers “unpaid reporters”

News releases are judged soely on the newsworthiness, timeliness, interest to the readers, and other traditional news values.

When Planning a news release, a number of questions should be answered:

  • What is the key message? (one sentence) 
  • Who is the primary audience?  (affects where release is sent, daily newspapers or a trade magazine)
  • What does the target audience gain from the product of service? (potential benefits or rewards)
  • What objectives does the release serve?

The news release is written like a news story, the inverted pyramid. A summary of the most important part of the story is at the top nad the following paragraphs descend in order of importance/urgency. This is because your story may be chopped in half. Either by reports who need so many words, or readers who get bored after the first few paragraphs.

Difference between internet press releases and tradition include:

  1. Traditional, mailed out press releases, are double spaced on an 8.5×11.
  2. A news release sent via e-mail is single spaced.
  3. Online news release usually list the contents at the end, not the top. 

B.L. Ochman, writer for The Strategist suggest  “[thinking] of the electronic news release as a teaser to get a reporter or editor to your Web site for additional information.”

* Two major newswires online are: Business Wire and Newswire. Each transmits about 18,000 news releases monthly to media outlets. 

Mat feature release: Different from a traditional news release because a feature angle is usually used instead of a lead that gives a key message. They can be distributed in a variety of forms including word documents, jpeg, and pdfs. 

The concept is to provide helpful consumer information and tips about a variety of subject in an informative way with only a brief mention of the company that has distributed the release.mat-releases21

Media Alerts (also called Media Advisories): The PR staff, on occasion, will send a memo to reporters and editors about a news conference or upcoming event that they may with to cover, intended to inform or alert.

They can be sent with an accompanying news release or by themselves. 140635140_694ede9f38

Fact Sheets: Distributed to the media a part if a media kit or with the news release to give additional background information about the product, person, service, or event. 

*usually prepared for major events and new product launches.2168376558_c07ecbac48_m

One to two pages. Should provide to journalist:

  1. organizations full name
  2. products or services offered
  3. its annual revenues (not always offered if private)
  4. number of employees
  5. the names and one-paragraph bio of top executives
  6. the markets served
  7. position in the industry
  8. any other pertinent detials

*usually found in media kit. 

*this always needs be accessible, have several copies in several ways. 

Media Kits (also called Press Kits): Purpose is to give editors and reporters a variety of information and resources that make is easier for the reporter to write about the topic. 

Basic elements of a media kit:2596442971_8732450f3d

  1. the main news releases
  2. a news feature about the development of the product or something similar
  3. fact sheets on the product, organization, or event 
  4. background information
  5. photos and drawings with captions
  6. biographical material on the spokesperson or chief executives
  7. some basic brochures

Pitch: a short letter or note written by a PR practitioner or publicist to an editor to try and grab their attention.

Usually attached to the media kit and lets the editor know, in brief form, about the program

*this is used because of the difficulty in getting the attention of the media gatekeepers due to the hundreds of news releases and media kits received weekly.

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Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

circle_of_influence_103162005_std1My textbook points out that public opinion is somewhat elusive and extremely hard to measure at any given moment. Few issues create unanimity of thought among the population, and public opinion on any issue is split into several directions. Psychologist have found that the public tends to be passive, it is assumed that a small vocal group represents the attitude of the public. Although, in reality, it is more accurate to say that the majority of the people are apathetic because an issue doesn’t unterest or affect them. So public opposition may be the view of a small but significant number of concerned people. One issue may engage the attention of one part of the population, whereas another arouses the interest of another segment, like parents would be more concerned about education while grandparents are focused on social security issues. Opinion leaders serve as catalyst for the formation of public opinion are people who are knowledgeable and articulate about specific issues. There are two types of leaders defined by sociologists. The first is formal opinion leaders, because of their positions as elected officials, presidents of companies, or heads of membership groups, they are also called power leaders. Second are the informal opinion leaders, those who have a strong influece with peers because of some special characteristics. People seldom make decisions on their own but, are influenced by many differnt people in their lives, i.e teachers, friends, parents, movie stars, public officials, etc. Many PR campaigns focuse on identifying and reaching key opinon leaders who are pivotal to the success or failure of the idea or project. The multiple-step flow model explains in the center are opinion leaders who derive large amounts of information from the mass media and other sources and then share that information with people. The less attnetive publics are the more likely to be influenced by opinion leaders. Inattentive publics are only incidentally affected by news coverage, if at all.

 

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

picep2Evaluation is the fourth step in PR, it is the measurement of results against established objectives set during the planning process. Professor James Bissland formerly of Bowling Green State University defines it as “the systematic assement of a program and it reults.” You must have a clearly stated objectives in order to meausure their success. There are three levels of measurement that can be used to evaluate.
The most basic level, #1, is measuring target audiences, impressions, and media placements. The number of media placements are watched, Burrelles/Luce firm, for example, can tell someeone in 10-15 minutes when are where they are being talked about by monitoring 10s of thousands of each media outlet, like blogs, newspapers, magazine, TV and cable stations, and etc. In addition, they are able to evaluate how many people may have been exposed to the message, which is called media impressions, the potential audience reached by a message in different media outlets. On the Web, the number of people reached via WWW. site or home page is called a hit or a visit.Traditionally message exposure traching was measured by bulk but, new advance in computer software make it possible to track media exposure in a more sophisticated ways. Specialty mesurement firms do extensive analysis for a varity of clients for many different objective.

Level #2 is the intermediate level where retention, comprehension, awareness, and reception are all measured. This is where they evaluate if the groups recieving the message actually recieved the message whether they were paying attention, if the message was understood, and if they have retained the message in any shape or form. The day-after recall, is one way of measuring these questions. Participants are asked to view a specific TV program or read a new story; the next day, they are then interviewed to learn which message they remember.

The third level is advanced and measures behavior change, attitude change, and opinion change. Baseline study, is a technique to determine such changes. It measures audiences’ attitudes and opinions befor, during, and after a PR campaign, which is also called bechmark studies, gives a graphical measured percentage difference.

 

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

The 1st step in public relations is reseach, 2nd is planning, and 3rd is communication. Also known as execution, and it is the implemation of a decision, the process and the means by which objectives are achieved. The goals of this process are to inform, persuade, motivate, or achieve mutual understanding.  According to Patrick Jackson, editor of pr reporter, communication should be 1.appropriate, 2.meanigful, 3.memorable, 4.understandable, and 5. believable to the pospective recipient.

There are many models to explain how a message moves from the sender to the recipient. There are four basic elements with: sender/ source (encoder), a messag, channel, and a reciever (decoder). There is a 5th element, which is feedback, but that isnt always immediate or available. Feedback is two-way communication that is balanced between reciever and sender.

There are two types of audiences: Passive and Active. Passive audiences pay attention to the message that have style and creativity, they respond to billboards glimpses, radio announcements. They pay attention to communication channels that can be utilized while they are doing little else. Active audiences are seeking detailed information, they have made up their mind and are deliberatly listening for information. These people may attend a seminar or go to a trade show based on that interest.

The intended audience is made up of both passive and active information seekers.prrscha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

 

After you have conducted your research, the next step for a PR person is program planning. If the the jigsaw puzzle is planning, the pieces are the research. The best planning is systematic. One process to planning is management by objective (MBO), which provides focus and direction for formulating strategies to achieve a specific organizational goal. Two approaches to planning are Norman R. Nager and T. Harrell Allen have 9 Management by Objective (MBO) steps that can help a practition. Their 9 steps consists of identifying 1.what the purpose of communication is and how it will promotoe the organization objective. 2.Who the message needs to meet and how they can help achieve organization goals. 3. What the audience wants to know and how to tailor the message to them. 4. What channels should be used and how the reinenforce the message. 5.What angle is the media outlet looking for and why they would be interested in your information. 6. What primary and secondary sources do you need to provide a factual base to message. 7. What environmental factors can affect the message and what the target audiences current disposition to the message. 8. What is the intended impact on the audience, do you want to inform or change attitudes. 9. How can nonverbal messages (films, pictures, graphs) enhance the message?

“The Strategic Planning Model for Public Relations” created by Ketchum offers more specific questions. They are made up of facts (industry trends, significant product/service/issue characteristics, competitors and competive advantage/similarities/differences), goals (company objectives with time frame, role of PR in marketing mix, what sector will grow), audience (target audience, current mind set,desired mind set)

These approaches lead to the next imprtant step of wirting of a strategic public relations plan. There are 8 basic elements of a strategic plan: 1.Situation 2.Objectives 3.Audience 4.Strategy 5.Tactics 6.Calendar/timetable 7. Budget 8. Evaluation

 

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

The first step in the PR process is research. Before any PR program can be undertaken, information myst be gathered and data must be collected and itnterpreted. Questions should be asked before formulating a research design such as: What is the problem? What kind of information is needed? How will the results of the research be used? What specific public (or publics) should be researched? Should the organzations do the research in-house or hire and outside consultant? How will the research data be anazlyzed, reported, or applied? How soon wil the results be needed? How much will the research cost?
These questions will help the PR person determine the extent and nature of the research needed. PR proffesionals use research to achieve credibility with management, define audiences and segment publics, formulate strategies, test messeages, help management keep in touch, to prevent crisises, monitor the competition, to sway public opinion, generate publicity, and to measure success.
Techniques include secondary research, qualitative and quantitatice research. Secondary research uses existing information. They secondary information may include archival research, which looks at the inventory of the organization materials that can inform about succes of product/service, geographical sales analysis, and profile of the typical consumer of product/service. Library and online databases as well as the internet are also examples of where to gather secondary information. This is useful because it is the least expensice. Qualitative research is useful for probing attitudes and perceptions. This is accomplished through many ways. The first may be content analysis, which measures the amount of media coverage and the content of the coverage. Interviews can be conducted by intercept interview, done in public places when a research stops to ask you questions. A more in-depth interview is called purposive interviewing, where interviewees are more carefully selected based on expertise, influence, or leadership. Other ways of researching are focus groups, copy testing and ethnographic techniques. Quantitative research is based on two factors: randomness and a large number of responses. The biggest differnece between quantitative and qualitiative is finding individual preferences and generalized population opinions.

pr-research

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

pr1The first corporate PR department was created by George Westinghouse in 1889 to publicize his creation of alternating current (AC) electricity. Westinghouse’s public relations department concept has grown into a basic part of today’s electronic world. This chapter discusses the public relations function in organizational structures, names of departments, and the pros and cons of working in a department. Today, public relations firms provide a varitey of services including: Marketing communications, involves promotion of products and services through tools like news releases, features stories, special events, brochures, and media tours. Evecutive speech training, top executives are coached on public affair activites, including personal apperances. Research and evalutation, scientific surveys conducted to measure public attitudes and perceptions. Crisis communication, management is counseled on ways to achieve offficial and oublic support for such projects as building or expanding a factory. Events management, new conferences anniversary celebrations, rallies, symposiums, and national conferences are planned and conducted. Public affairs, materials and testimonies are prepared for gov’t hearing and reulatory bodies, and back-ground briefings are prepared. Branding and corporate reputation, giving advice on programs that establish a company brand and its reputation for quality. Financial relations, managment is counseled on ways to avoid takeover by another firm and effectively communicate with stockholders, security analysts, and instituational investors. PR firms are found in every industrialized nation and most of the developing world.

 

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

This chapter discusses ethics, which “is concerned with how we should live our lives. It focuses on questions about what is right and wrong, fair or unfair, caring or uncaring, good or bad, responsible or irresponsible, and the like.” The difficulty in deciding whether an act is ethical and lies in the fact that individuals have different standards and perceptions of what is “right” or “wrong”. The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) and the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) have done much to develop the standards of ethical, professional public relations practice and to help society understand the role of public relations. PRSA is the largest PR organization in the world while IABC is the second largest. They have similar objectives of providing lifelong learning opportunities. Codes for specific situations and issues are endorsed by various organization. The codes includes such situations/events: Financial information, video news releases, internet PR, and corporate practice. The most influential part was talking about ethics is individual practice. Commendable practices: Be honest. Convey a sense of business ethics based on your opponents and audiences. Develop trust by emphasizing substance over triviality. Present all sides of an issue. Strive for a balance between loyalty to the organization and duty to the public. Don’t sacrifice long-term objectives for the short-term gains.

 

 

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

The book we are using in my intro to PR class is Public Relations Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition by Dennis L. Wilcox and Glen T. Cameron.

Ch.1: What is Public Relations?

This chapter is about defining Public Relation and differentiating it from other fields such as: Journalism and Marketing. It shows how they are related but also intertwined.  PR has stereotypes both bad and good. Certain shows can portray PR as glamorous (Sex & the City) while others help create negative ones (Spin City).  PR is a changing field that may develop a career in numerous areas of this increasingly diverse field. Although, the book identifies 5 essential abilities needed in all PR fields. The 5 essential abilities are 1.) Writing skills, the ability to put ideas and information onto paper clearly and concisely is essential. 2.) Research ability, arguments must have factual support instead of generalities.  3.) Panning expertise, PR programs require a number of communication tools and activities that must be carefully planned and coordinated. 4.) Problem-solving ability, innovative ideas and fresh approaches are needed to solve complex problems or to make a PR program unique and memorable. 5.) Business/economics competence, increasing emphasis on PR as management function requires PR students to understand business and economics.There is also discussion on the importance of internships and the various salaries PR practitioners earn. This chapter focuses on PR in todays modern business environment.

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

This section addresses where PR began and trends now found today in PR. The most influential part of the book was talking about PR Pioneers. Such names as Samuel Insull, Henry Ford, Teddy Roosevelt, Ivy Lee, George Creel, and Edward L. Bernays were all influential PR pioneers. The first publicity agency, the Publicity Bureau, was established in Boston in 1905. The biggest influence or genius of them, in my opinion was Edward Bernays. Professor Barbra Nixon, my intro to PR professor, shared with us a youtube video (the one also found here) which I found very interested. Bernays was the nephew of Sigmund Freud and greatly understood behavioral psychology, as well as the importance in formulating campaigns to change people’s perspective and encourage certain behaviors. His new model of pubic relations was demonstated in a video we watched briefly in class. In the video Bernays discussed his clients concern for the taboo on women smoking in public. The client was the Tobacco company, so Bernays sought out a psychoanalysis who informed him that cigarettes were a symbol of the penis and male sexual power. To get women to smoke he would have to find a way to portray smoking as a way of challenging male power, giving them their own penis. “Torches of freedom” were lit up dramatically by women suffragist debutants during the New York annual Easter Day parade for newspapers to capture and show the world.

Ch. 14 News Releases, Media Alerts, and Pitch Letter April 22, 2009
Filed under: Reading Notes — epond6 @ 11:56 am Edit This

News Release (also called press release): The first press release was issued by Ivy Lee in 1906 for the Pennsylvania Railroad. Today, it is still the most common used PR tactic. This is a simple document with the primary purpose of getting information to the mass media (newspapers, broadcast stations, and magazines,etc.)

The Wall Street Journal admits that “a good 50%” of the stories in the newspapers come from news releases.

Why does the media rely on news releases?

Today, journalist spend most of their time processing information, not gathering it
Staffing, there are not enough people to cover ever single event taking place in the community. PR people are the newspapers “unpaid reporters”
News releases are judged soely on the newsworthiness, timeliness, interest to the readers, and other traditional news values.

When Planning a news release, a number of questions should be answered:

What is the key message? (one sentence)
Who is the primary audience? (affects where release is sent, daily newspapers or a trade magazine)
What does the target audience gain from the product of service? (potential benefits or rewards)
What objectives does the release serve?
The news release is written like a news story, the inverted pyramid. A summary of the most important part of the story is at the top nad the following paragraphs descend in order of importance/urgency. This is because your story may be chopped in half. Either by reports who need so many words, or readers who get bored after the first few paragraphs.

Difference between internet press releases and tradition include:

Traditional, mailed out press releases, are double spaced on an 8.5×11.
A news release sent via e-mail is single spaced.
Online news release usually list the contents at the end, not the top.
B.L. Ochman, writer for The Strategist suggest ”[thinking] of the electronic news release as a teaser to get a reporter or editor to your Web site for additional information.”

* Two major newswires online are: Business Wire and Newswire. Each transmits about 18,000 news releases monthly to media outlets.

Mat feature release: Different from a traditional news release because a feature angle is usually used instead of a lead that gives a key message. They can be distributed in a variety of forms including word documents, jpeg, and pdfs.

The concept is to provide helpful consumer information and tips about a variety of subject in an informative way with only a brief mention of the company that has distributed the release.

Media Alerts (also called Media Advisories): The PR staff, on occasion, will send a memo to reporters and editors about a news conference or upcoming event that they may with to cover, intended to inform or alert.

They can be sent with an accompanying news release or by themselves.

Fact Sheets: Distributed to the media a part if a media kit or with the news release to give additional background information about the product, person, service, or event.

*usually prepared for major events and new product launches.

One to two pages. Should provide to journalist:

organizations full name
products or services offered
its annual revenues (not always offered if private)
number of employees
the names and one-paragraph bio of top executives
the markets served
position in the industry
any other pertinent detials
*usually found in media kit.

*this always needs be accessible, have several copies in several ways.

Media Kits (also called Press Kits): Purpose is to give editors and reporters a variety of information and resources that make is easier for the reporter to write about the topic.

Basic elements of a media kit:

the main news releases
a news feature about the development of the product or something similar
fact sheets on the product, organization, or event
background information
photos and drawings with captions
biographical material on the spokesperson or chief executives
some basic brochures
Pitch: a short letter or note written by a PR practitioner or publicist to an editor to try and grab their attention.

Usually attached to the media kit and lets the editor know, in brief form, about the program

*this is used because of the difficulty in getting the attention of the media gatekeepers due to the hundreds of news releases and media kits received weekly.

Source:

Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon