After you have conducted your research, the next step for a PR person is program planning. If the the jigsaw puzzle is planning, the pieces are the research. The best planning is systematic. One process to planning is management by objective (MBO), which provides focus and direction for formulating strategies to achieve a specific organizational goal. Two approaches to planning are Norman R. Nager and T. Harrell Allen have 9 Management by Objective (MBO) steps that can help a practition. Their 9 steps consists of identifying 1.what the purpose of communication is and how it will promotoe the organization objective. 2.Who the message needs to meet and how they can help achieve organization goals. 3. What the audience wants to know and how to tailor the message to them. 4. What channels should be used and how the reinenforce the message. 5.What angle is the media outlet looking for and why they would be interested in your information. 6. What primary and secondary sources do you need to provide a factual base to message. 7. What environmental factors can affect the message and what the target audiences current disposition to the message. 8. What is the intended impact on the audience, do you want to inform or change attitudes. 9. How can nonverbal messages (films, pictures, graphs) enhance the message?

“The Strategic Planning Model for Public Relations” created by Ketchum offers more specific questions. They are made up of facts (industry trends, significant product/service/issue characteristics, competitors and competive advantage/similarities/differences), goals (company objectives with time frame, role of PR in marketing mix, what sector will grow), audience (target audience, current mind set,desired mind set)

These approaches lead to the next imprtant step of wirting of a strategic public relations plan. There are 8 basic elements of a strategic plan: 1.Situation 2.Objectives 3.Audience 4.Strategy 5.Tactics 6.Calendar/timetable 7. Budget 8. Evaluation



Wilcox, D.L. & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (9th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon